Kilwa – meaning ‘Place of Fish’ – is the collective name given to three different areas on the Tanzanian coast: Kilwa Kisiwani, Kilwa Kivinje and Kilwa Masoko. Visitors come here to explore UNESCO-listed ruins that tell the story of centuries of coastal history.
Kilwa Kisiwani is an abandoned city filled with crumbling mosques, remnants of once glorious palaces, and ancient tombs. Said to be one of the most important surviving relicts of the Islamic-influenced Swahili maritime trade, it’s quite rightly the main attraction for visitors to the area.
According to local historians, the island was settled in the 11th century by Ali bin Al-Hasan of Persia, who ruled over the island for 40 years. The dynasty he founded was credited with having established Kilwa as a significant trade center. Over the next two centuries, various successors ruled and were overthrown, but they built impressive coral-stone houses and lavish mosques – the remains of which can still be seen today.
When the Portuguese took over the coastline in 1505 they assumed control of Kilwa Kisiwani. They murdered the majority of the residents and replaced the Arab palaces with forts. Today, a small number of local fishermen live on the island, but for the most part it is deserted.
Kilwa Kivinje – a small town on the mainland – was once the southern center of the slave trade with up to 20,000 slaves passing through annually and, consequently, it was very wealthy. Outlawed in 1873, the slave trade is still thought to have continued in Kilwa Kivinje until 1880. Afterward, the Germans took over the town and used it as an administrative center, but following the end of World War II the town gradually lost importance and today it is a small port. Travelers can visit the big fort with a cannon leftover from World War I, an old German market hall, as well as an attractive beach where you can watch the local fishermen. Very few people visit the area, so it provides an authentic insight into Tanzanian life.
Kilwa Masoko which translates to “Kilwa Market” is a coastal town lying approximately 300km south of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania’s largest commercial city. Lying on a peninsula, it is Kilwa District’s administrative and commercial center.
The harbor at Kilwa Masoko is the starting point for atmospheric dhow trips to the neighboring Kilwa Kisiwani, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is also possible to dive and see some of the marine archaeological sites.